As mentioned in The Importance of Knowledge Page – there is a relationship between theory and method
Thinking (theory) determine the Methods Used which Provide the Results
The fundamental recognition is that there is a relationship between how an organisation thinks (its underpinning theories) and the methods it uses. If the organisation believes that we can motivate people then it will be persuaded to use reward schemes, such as bonuses, on the assumption that these schemes will motivate the individual to work harder. If on the other hand the enterprise believes that we are intrinsically motivated and come to work already prepared to do our best, then the focus is more on the work environment and how it enables staff to do a good job.
This page addresses the methods associated with the thinking (or theory)
(this page will be extended in due course)
Command Control Methods – from its thinking.
- Assumption: – Staff require to be motivated – the methods which follow go under the general description as extrinsic motivators – they include targets, external goal setting, the need to secure qualifications, bonus systems, incentive schemes, appraisal etc
- Assumption:- Staff need to be directed and controlled – regulations, centrally determined standards, auditing against standards, budgets, concepts of accountability.
- Assumption:- To address complex problems we break them down into parts and address the parts – basic assumption is that the whole is the sum of the parts – Dividing the organisation into various functions – sales, purchasing, production, accounting, human Resource etc. Then having a budget and target for each section and assessing performance of each section against budget or plan.
- Assumption:- That a single measure compared against budget has meaning– period by period tabulated data comparing performance with previous period and equivalent period last year. Plus comparing with budget and target.
- Assumption:- that leadership is an art and we gain knowledge through experience – A focus on character attributes, little investment in training, little to no reading on “management” other than those books that develop character.
- Assumption:- That we are intrinsically motivated to do a good job – Listening, a focus on enabling staff to be all they can be, Servant Leadership where the bosses see their staff as customers of the environment established by the managers, standards predominately set by those at the work face.
- Assumption: – Systems Thinking and the recognition that at least 90% of outcomes are determined by the design of the system– Managers record, analyse and improve the system through the use of various systems diagrams; including deployment flow charts, rich diagrams, and system archetypes.
- Assumption:- There is variation in all our processes – All measurement data is presented and analysed using control charts.
- Assumption: – That we learn by identifying our underpinning assumptions and challenging them in light of modern research – we learn from the many books, articles and seminars that are readily available. We recognise that the main avenue for learning is in context of the organisation and its operation systems.
While we would be critical of Six Sigma as it does not address the underlying assumptions of an organisation it does provide a comprehensive set of methods – see any Six Sigma text book.
For further basic exploration of modern methods view the following http://www.dln.org.uk/methods.html